Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11452/4027
Title: Kurtubî ve fıkhî tefsiri
Other Titles: Al-qurtub and hİs jursprudental interpretaton
Authors: Çelik, İbrahim
Bayram, Abdullah
Uludağ Üniversitesi/Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü/Temel İslam Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı/Tefsir Bilim Dalı.
Keywords: El-Câmi li-Âhkâmi’l-Kur’ân ve’l-Mübeyyinü limâ Tadammenehû mine’s-Sünneti ve Âyi’l-Furkân
Ebû Abdillâh Muhammed b. Ahmed el-Kurtubî
Tefsir ve tefsir usûlü
Hadis ve hadis usûlü
Fıkıh ve fıkıh usûlü
Endülüs ve kurtuba
Al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân
Abu Abd Allah Mohammed bn Ahmad al-Qurtubi
Al-Tafsir ( interpretation) and interpretation’s methodology
Al-Hadith (Tradition) Tradition’s Methodology
Al-Fıqh ( slâmîc Jurisprudence) slâmîc Jurisprudence’s Methodology
Andalusia (Spain) and Qurtuba
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Uludağ Üniversitesi
Citation: Bayram, A. (2008). Kurtubî ve fıkhî tefsiriKurtubî ve fıkhî tefsiri. Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi. Uludağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
Abstract: Ebû Abdillâh Muhammed b. Ahmed el-Kurtubî, Endülüs’ün Kurtuba sehrinde dogmustur. Dogu slâm dünyasının Mogol, Endülüs’ün ise haçlı istilâsı sonucu kesin olarak elden çıktıgı ve slâm dünyasının sürekli haçlı seferlerine maruz kaldıgı VII./XIII. Asırda Mısır, hem dogudan ve hem de batıdan, ülkelerini terketmek zorunda kalan pek çok âlimin sıgındıgı yer olmus ve Kahire ve Dımask, slâm dünyasının en önemli iki ilim merkezi haline gelmistir. Kurtuba’nın isgalinden sonra Mısır’ın güneyinde yer alan el-Minye’ye yerlesen Kurtubî, burada daha çok kitap telifiyle mesgul olmustur. Müfessirin, el-Câmi li-âhkâmi’l-Kur’ân adlı fıkhî tefsirini de Mısır’dayken ve kuvvetle muhtemel olarak el-Minye’nin sâde ortamında telif ettigini söylemek mümkündür. Kurtubî, en önemli eseri olan bu ahkâm tefsirinin yanında, slâmî ilimlerin çesitli sahalarında ilmî kıymete haiz birçok eser daha kaleme almıstır. Ahlâki erdemlere çok önem veren ve dünyaya karsı zühd sahibi olan Kurtubî, fıkıh, lugat ve kıraat alanlarındaki birikimini ansiklopedik özellikteki fıkhî tefsirinde ortaya koymustur. O, Mâlikî mezhebine mensup olmakla birlikte objektif bir ilim adamı tutum ve davranısı sergileyerek mezhep taassubundan uzak kalmıstır. Tefsirinde hukuk normlarını belirlerken slâm hukukunun kolaylık prensibini göz önünde bulundurmus ve hadise ve me’sûr tefsire öncelik vermistir. Aynı zamanda müfessir Ehl-i sünnet dısındaki ekol ve inkârcıların görüslerini tenkit etmis ve yasadıgı çagın ictimâî ve sosyal olaylarını degerlendirmistir. Kurtubî, genellikle hadislerden âyetlerin tefsiri ve konuların izah edilmesi amacıyla yararlanmaktadır; hadisler esas mesele incelenirken istifade edilen örnek ve sâhitler olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Genellikle sahih hadisleri kullanan müfessir, az da olsa zaman zaman zayıf ve mevzu olanlara da yer vermektedir. Hem Dogu hem de Batı medeniyetinde yetisen Kurtubî’nin, ilim tahsiline Endülüs’te baslayıp sonra da tefsirini Mısır’da telif etmesi hususunun günümüz açısından önem arzettigi ve bu yönden arastırılması gerektigi kanaatindeyiz. Çünkü müfessirin yasadıgı zaman dilimi Dogu ve Batı degerlerinin birbirleriyle yakından tanısıp yüzlestigi bir çag olup onun eseri de böyle bir asrın çok önemli bir tanıgıdır. Kurtubî bu eserinde, seriatın umûmi maksad ve gâyelerini ve ictimâî degisimleri maslahat ekseninde degerlendirerek slâm hukukundaki ahkâmın degismesi iv prensibini fonksiyonel hale getirmistir. Küresellesen dünyamızın hemen her alanında bas döndürücü bir degisim söz konusudur. slâm hukukunun süreklilik ve degisime açık olma özelligi açısından Kurtubî Tefsîri, çagımıza yeni bir yaklasım getirerek günümüz slâm hukuk felsefesine ısık tutacak ilmî birikim ve veriye haizdir. Kurtubî, 9 Sevvâl 671/29 Nisan 1273 tarihinde el-Minye’de vefat etti ve buraya defnedildi
Abu Abd Allah Mohammed bn Ahmad bn Abi Bakr bn Farah al-Ansâri al-Khazreji al-Qurtubi, born in Qurtuba of Andalusia (Spain). His education starts in Qurtuba and continues in Egypt where he has immigrated, following the invasion of Qurtuba in 633/1236. He takes lessons on tradition (hadith) from masters such as Abu al-Abbâs al-Qurtubi and others in Alexandria. Later, he settles at Munya and devotes himself to write books. Here he continues his education which has been interrupted during the invasion. Besides Qurtubi’s most important study is al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân, the other well-known books are al-Asna, on the interpretation of the most beautiful names of Allah; al-Tadhkar fi Âfdal alÂdhkar; Kitab al-Tadhkira bi-Umûr al-Âkhira; Sharh al-Taqassi; Kitab Qam’u al-Hırs bi al- Zuhd wa al-Qanâ’a wa Radd Dhill al-Suâl bi al-Kutub wa’l-Shafâ’a; and an Urdjûza. He died there in 671/1273. Our work deals with a very important figure of Andalusian exegetical school during the VII. slâmîc century, Abu Abd Allah Mohammed bn Ahmad al-Qurtubi and his most important work al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al- Furkân, a commentary on the Quran and Qurtubi’s Philosophy of slâmîc law. The study consists of three major chapters. In the first chapter of the study, Abu Abd Allah Mohammed bn Ahmad al-Qurtubi’s life, his Works and his career as a scholar are discussed. In this context, his creed, his personality and brief account of lives and works of his students are also given. The second chapter, subdivided into two part is about al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân which is the main text studied in this study. The first part deals with the sources of al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al- Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân. These main sources are evaluated within the context of such Islamic sciences as tafsir, hadith, jurisprudence, history, language and syntax. All of these ara analyzed and studied in relation to al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al- Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân. In the second part, vi al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al- Furkân is studied from the perspective of interpretation of narrative or traditional (al-tafsir bi’lrivâye). And examples are given from the book about how the Quran was interpreted with the aid of the Quran itself, of hadith the speeches of the Prophet’s Companions, and the sayings of the second generation muslims (tâbiûn). Examples are also given about how the Quran was interpreted by al-Qurtubi in his book with the aid of ocassinons of revelation (asbâbü’n-nüzûl), abrogation (al-naskh) and recitals (al-kırâat). A critique of the chains of narration (isnâd) is also carried out. Besides in the second part, treats al-Jâmi li-Ahkâm al-Qur’an wa al-Mubayyin li mâ Tadammânâ min al-Sunna wa Âyât al-Furkân from the perspective of interpretation of arbitrary opinion (al-tafsir bi’l-ra’y). And certain aspects of Quranic interpretations, such as hadith, slâmîc jurisprudence and its methodology, theology, language, syntax, semantics and rhetoric are explained in detail. In addition to rest of his life was dedicated to the composition of religious books. Qurtubi was a religious man, and he wrote an exegesis which contains several sciences such as the variant readings, law, language etc. Although he belonged to the Mâlikî school of thought he never limited himself with Maliki law. His commentary that looks like an encyclopedia and his style is very fluent. He used prophetic tradition a lot and from time to time he discussed against the opinion of un-orthodox people and heretics. He also did not neglect to note the political, social and historical events of his time. Qurtubi narrates from compilers of traditions. A reference to one of compilations for a tradition is usually enough for him. He feels no need to criticise masters of traditions like Bukhari and Muslim. He has profound knowledge in the field of Biography (Rijâl). But, while making investigations about the conditions of men from the chain of narrators of traditions that he mentions, he ocassionally criticizes the views of experts on Biography (Rijâl). Traditions, assembled by him are usually authentic (sahih). However, he makes use of weak (zayıf) hadiths as well as appocrifical (mevzû) traditions, we think that number of them is few. His approach to accepting traditions as authentic is not very critical but lenient. He more interested in the content than the process of transmission. He assembles hadiths for solvation of question raised by the verse which he interprets. The third chapter of the study, Abu Abd Allah Mohammed bn Ahmad al-Qurtubi’s philosophy of slâmîc law is an analytical study of Qurtubi’s concept of maslaha (business matter, important matter) in relation to his doctrine of maqâsid al-sharî’a with particular reference to the problem of adaptability/immutability of slâmîc Legal theory to social change. Finally in the consclusion the results are enumerated and briefly analyzed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11452/4027
Appears in Collections:Doktora Tezleri / PhD Dissertations

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